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|Magnetic anomalies of Martian geology|
|<< cofnij | Polish version|
mgr inż. Krzysztof Lewandowski
In this paper is shown a same hypothesis about creation of Martian magnetic anomalies in connection with visible geological structures.
An impact crater, magnetic anomalies, the Curie point.
The most recent results of investigations of Mars magnetic field have revealed evidence that the amplitude lines of magnetic field are concentrated in definite places of the planet. If we pay attention to the results from article  we notice that places stipulated describe those, as magnetically active. The places are concentrated in narrows angles of horizontal azimuth in and around the polar zones of the planet. In the zone around mars north pole it exists in an angle between the 30o and 300o meridians. Therefore the region of penetration amplitude lines of magnetic field at the north pole is 90o.
Fig 1. Amplitude lines of magnetic filed in the environs of Mars north pole .
For the south pole this azimuth is located between the 120o and 210o meridians. Therefore the regions of penetration by amplitude lines of magnetic field at the south pole is 90o.
Fig 2. Amplitude lines of magnetic filed in environs of Mars south pole .
After placing an obtained files on to Mars topography map, we first of all see, that the magnetic poles regard themselves are exactly symmetrical. South magnetic pole is opposite the zone which has been strongly geologically changed in the same hemisphere, where the giant impact craters Hellas and Argrye Palnitia are found. The authors job  was to notice that in the vicinity of the south pole, the composition vectors of amplitude lines of magnetic field are very variable and are dependant on latitude and longitude aerographicaly over the surface of the planet. The situation is completely different at the north pole, where vectors are more settlementally and precisely descried and where fluxes in the magnetic field are more concentrated. If in addition, we focuses attention to files about Mars gravitional anomalies , to appear us a picture to hasten prehistory of these planet.
Fig 3. Mars gravitational anomalies .
We notice that, the strongest anomalies exist in the same, compactly described zones of the planet. They are regions :
Tab 1. The regions on mars with great gravitational anomalies .
If we compare those files with those obtained by the Viking spaceprobes, we can notice the absolutely furniture both investigations series.
Fig 4. Mars gravitational anomalies obtained by Viking spaceprobes .
Noticing authors of lecture  big concentration amplitude lines of magnetic field is exists first of all in Mars south hemisphere. Hemisphere, whiches has been change on to effect an impacts an impacts some space bodies and covering up the cover raisere by rockydebirs. Mass concentration, whiches are existing first of all in the northern hemisphere of the planet does not exhibit strongly magnetic activity.
So we are forced to ask the question of where this results from ?
Here, I suggest the following probable evolution of events on the Mars:
Approximately 1,3 bln. Years ago a cataclysm occurred on Mars, which evoked the deliverancy of a great energy. This caused stormy swellings and gigantic floods on the Red Planet. What was the cause of this event ?
It could only have been caused by the one or more large space bodies into the planets crust [4,5]. Still visible today are the huge impact craters, Hellas, Argrye and Isidis, which lend considerable credibility of this hypothesis.
The impact wave that goes through the interior of sphere resulted in a burst on the opposite side of the planet. On Mars we find a most interesting geological structure Valles Marineris. A huge impact energy could have brought about great internal friction and produced heat that penetrated through the planets frozen surface. This may have resulted in floods and intensified volcane activity. The northern hemisphere effects of the of influence of water have been alleviated. Mudes of sediments and water erosion have to decreased the shapes of the rents.
The southern hemisphere of the planets is resembled a swollen face after a strong impact. Nudge impact crater Hellas Planitia is shows as on this background such as a large shootwound. More, looking with attention we see that an opposite side of the planet too exhibits a traces of those impacts. I consider that a mountain massive in the northern hemisphere, Alba Patera, has been uplifted by an outpressing of material inside the planet under an impact with a large space body. Suprise, but at the same time also confirmed those same fact.
If we look closely at the Martian globe we notice that complete symmetry exist on both of these formations. An impact crater Hellas Planitia divided to mountain massive Alba Patera a horizontal angle 180o. However the vertical angle is exactly 90o. This has confirmed a supposition, that the mountain massive in northern hemisphere, Alba Patera, has been uplifted by effect of knocking a big impact crater on south hemisphere - Hellas Planitia.
Heat penetrating through the planet surface, evoked wormed up the rocky material in or over the Curie point, which in consequence caused it to partially loose its magnetic properties. The south region of the planet, around craters Hellas and Argrye have been raided by a giants rock blocks, threw previous under an impacts of space bodies. Dropped, those blocks probable didn't achieve a temperature over the point Curie, believes they saved residuals themselves magnetic properties. Of course, the impacts, themselves, were absolutely accidental. From here we can explain the rage particle of vectors of magnetic flied in these regions.
Today, from the position of Mars magnetic poles we can explain this: If we turn our attention to Mars geologic map, remember at the same time about dates connected with the situation of magnetic poles and gravitational anomalies, we can suppose that the general direction of impact energy propagation and heat melting inside the planets interior was drove lengthways straight line which connected a points 40oN,245oE to 40oS,68oE correspond to the regions Hellas Planitia and Alba Patera.
Fig 5. Mars geologic map 
Remember also that Mars is a sphere while on the other hand, a points agreed upon, "input" and "output" those lines are relatively distant from aerographic poles, about 50o. From this we can suppose, that after impacts with space bodies, those aerographical poles were created in some niches, where the inside of rocky material was not exposed to the an influence of impact energy, and where an accidental component of flowing direction of impact wave over Mars crust had less energy. Here, we must understand, the dispersing first of all a surfaces seismically wave. Acceptance of this variant for evolution model of events after an Mars impact, can permit to us to an answer the question: what determined this but not the other positions of magnetically fluxes lines at present time on the Red Planet ?
If this above is true, those regions could save a primary, before an impact, a values of magnitude and nearest schedule of magnetic fluxes lines.
After the stopping of geological change on Mars, it means a flooding, creation a present visible structures on the northern hemisphere, and as a consequence a propagation of impact heating, under a process of cooling of the planet, could have been advantageous environments for reccurensing magnetization of the planet nucleus. There could were get down to work a MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) generator, which could again made almost homogenous magnetic field. However, it could not generate a strong magnitude of magnetic field, as existed before impact.
Fig 6. Scheme of probably shape of positions of magnetic axis, an areographical rotate axis and position center of gravity on Mars just after impact(-s). © Krzysztof Lewandowski 2000
Here we must understand, those model, where an acrossicly material inside a directly magnetic filed was material, lifted up inside the planet. The seeds could have been radioisotope elements included in the planet's nucleus, likewise, an ionizing metals for example: iron, both origin of on the planet and material of bodies, whiches has been impacted with Mars. Temperature and pressure inside the Red Planet after an impact were advantageous for rapid and intensive ionization of these particles. The flowing velocity of material with seeds was not high, but the scale of those phenomena could be advantageous for a MHD generator to come spontaneously into being.
Fig 7. Ironoxidate deposits on the Mars 
It created the big differention in the situation of the vectors of magnetic flux lines around the poles. The next process of the planet's cooling evoked only a frozen a status quo, in the shapes as such as are we observing now. The work process of MHD generator on the Mars was enough long, those again had been created, two, strongest magnetic poles, like wise it permitted to same standardization of shape the planet nucleus.
If this did not, thats Mars must have the same eccentric in consideration oh them selves rotation axies. More other, Mars must have periodically unstable positions on its trajectory around the Sun. Perhaps, Mars impacts with space bodies changed this.
Each space probe whiches flies to Mars must have the necessary equipment in the form of a heatflowing apparatus to measure the energy emmitated through the planet's crust. Ideal it will be, when the investigations in situ are provided by a landingmodule, equipped with a geological derrick.
M.Sc. Krzysztof Lewandowski
1. M.H. Acuna. et al.; Global Distribution of Crustal Magnetization Discovered by the Mars Global Surveyor MAG/ER Experiment; Science, vol 284; 30 April 1999;
2. G.Balamino; The Martian geoid; The Cambridge University Atlas of Astronomy, Cambridge University Press 1985;
3. J.E.P. Connerney et al; Magnetic Lineations in the Ancient Crust of Mars; Science, vol 284; 30 April 1999;
4. Krzysztof Lewandowski; Czy można myśleć o terraformowaniu Marsa bez brania pod uwagę jego pola magnetycznego ? ;
5. Krzysztof Lewandowski; Kilka słów refleksji;
6. Dan McKenzie; Plate tectonics on Mars ?; Nature, vol 399; 27 May 1999;
7. David E. Smith et al.; The Gravity Field of Mars Results from Mars Global Surveyor; Science, vol 286; 1 October 1999;
8. NASA; Geochemical Map of Mars; The Cambridge University Atlas of Astronomy, Cambridge University Press 1985;
9. A.P. Vinogradov et al.; Izmierenije intiensivnosti i spiektralnogo sostava gamma-isluchjenija Marsa na AMS "Mars 5"; Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1975, tom 223, No.6.
10. John Wood; Układ Słoneczny (The Solar system); PWN, Warszawa 1983.
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